Stem cell treatment is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a illness or situation. Bone marrow transplant is the most widely employed stem-cell treatment, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Investigation is underway to develop different sources for stem cells, as properly as to apply stem-cell treatment options for neurodegenerative ailments and conditions this kind of as diabetes and heart illness, among others.
Stem-cell treatment has turn out to be controversial following developments this kind of as the capability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to generate stem cells making use of somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of methods to generate induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is typically relevant to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to marketplace treatment options based mostly on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.
For above 30 many years, bone marrow has been utilized to treat individuals with cancer with conditions this kind of as leukaemia and lymphoma this is the only form of stem-cell treatment that is widely practiced. Throughout chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, nonetheless, are not able to discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells inside of the bone marrow. It is this side impact of standard chemotherapy approaches that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces practical stem cells to substitute the cells lost in the host’s entire body for the duration of remedy. The transplanted cells also generate an immune response that assists to kill off the cancer cells this process can go too far, nonetheless, leading to graft vs host illness, the most significant side impact of this remedy.
Another stem cell treatment referred to as Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host illness in kids who are unresponsive to steroids. It is an allogenic stem treatment based mostly on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of grownup donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to ten,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until needed.
The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell merchandise derived from umbilical cord blood, for the remedy of blood and immunological ailments.
In 2014, the European Medicines Agency advisable approval of limbal stem cells for individuals with severe limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.